England Overseers of the Poor and Board of Guardians - International Institute (2023)

International Institute for Genealogical Studies

England Overseers of the Poor and Board of Guardians - International Institute (1)

The original content for this article was contributed by The International Institute for Genealogical Studies in June 2012. It is an excerpt from their course English: Poor Law and Parish Chest Records by Dr. Penelope Christensen. The Institute offers over 200 comprehensive genealogy courses for a fee($).


  • 1 Poor Law Administration
  • 2 Overseers and Guardians
  • 3 Poor Rates
  • 4 Overseers Accounts
  • 5 Billing to Parish of Settlement
  • 6 Workhouse Out-Relief Accounts
  • 7 Guardians Accounts and General Ledgers

Poor Law Administration[edit | edit source]

Perhaps the most fruitful hunting ground for genealogists because of the wealth of relationships and family history to be found in these records, where they still survive.

Overseers and Guardians[edit | edit source]

The position of administering the Poor Law was undertaken in rotation by worthy men in the parish, anyone refusing to serve being fined. The Overseer of the Poor, at first called the Collector of the Poor and sometimes the Distributor, was chosen annually in the spring by the township or parish vestry from amongst their number, and in larger parishes two would be appointed. The names would then be approved by the Justices of the Peace. It was an often onerous position, but regarded as somewhat of an honour to be chosen, even though it was unpaid and with no recompense for lost wages. Overseers were therefore chosen from amongst the middle-aged yeoman, husbandmen and craftsmen, rather than from younger men or the less well-off cottagers or labourers. The individual was empowered to raise a rate or assessment to cover the needs of the poor, and had to justify his expenses by submitting his account at the end of his term, even being held responsible for costs unauthorized by the vestry.

Overseers of the Poor were first seen during the reign of Elizabeth I and continued until the New Poor Law in 1834 when they were replaced by Boards of Guardians. Upon the overseer fell the responsibility of deciding who needed assistance and balancing this against the ratepayers’ ability and willingness to pay. It was essentially a full time occupation as can be seen from the amount of paperwork generated and the amount of interviews and travel involved.

(Video) The History of the Workhouse with Peter Higginbotham

From 1834 the new Workhouse Guardians administered the system and a similar set of records were kept as had been by the Overseers of the Poor:

Note that the records of parishes which joined the voluntary Gilbert Unions between 1782 and 1834 may well be held with the post-1834 Poor Law Unions rather than with the parish chest material for that parish. It thus behooves the researcher to find out the history of his parish’s union involvement, and to search both groups of records - parish and union - for this middle period.

The Jeremy Gibson Guides Poor Law Union Records #s 1-3 present a summary of the extant Poor Law Union records 1834-1948 arranged by county and union, and giving the present location in England of the records. The list of record types and sketch maps of unions in each county are particularly handy. More detailed lists can be found in the holdings lists published by the county archives themselves. These should both be used in conjunction with the FamilySearch Catalog, so that those records that are extant but not yet filmed can be located. Gibson Guide #4 has been superceded by the author’s Parishes and Registration Districts in England and Wales. It should be noted that only the union records are covered by these Gibson Guides, not the former parish records.

Poor Rates[edit | edit source]

The Poor Rate was the main tax on the parishioners for the support of the less fortunate in their parish or, after 1834, in their union. In early times there were several small rates to pay for various expenditures, but for efficiency they were later amalgamated into the general Poor Rate. This took place in a number of ways and at different times in different places. Poor Rates continued to be collected by the parish after 1834 but handed over to the new Union Boards of Guardians. In 1862 unions started collecting their own rates, and in 1867 payment of rates within each Poor Law Union was equalized, with London adopting a common fund in 1865.

Poor Rates were levied annually, and sometimes more often. Some records, naming householders and the rate they paid, survive from the Old Poor Law but most extant records are from the New Poor Law period post-1834, when both owners and occupiers are listed. The values of land and property expressed on these lists should not be viewed as accurate, since there was a natural tendency to undervalue for tax purposes. However, the relative value compared with other inhabitants of the parish is probably a better measure of their standing in the community.

(Video) Why did people fear the Victorian workhouse?

An example from a Poor Rate book is shown below.

Poor Rate Book of Wippingham, Isle of Wight, Hampshire 1845 FS Library film 1526198 items 1-14 The parishioners of Whippingham paid poor rates quarterly and for the 2nd quarter of 1845 the highest amount paid was £19-5-11 by Queen Victoria for her land and buildings. Others paid from a few shillings to a few pounds. The books are very wide with columns for the owner, occupier, name and type of the property and acreage of land as well as the various calculations.

AN ASSESSMENT for the necessary Relief of the Poor, and for the other Purposes in the Several Acts of Parliament mentioned, relating to the Poor of the Parish of Whippingham in the Isle of Wight made and assessed the 25th day of July 1845 being the Second Quarter Rate at Seven Pence in the Pound, for the present year 1845.
John Roach (1 only signedChurch wardens
Wm Suguitt (?), John RobertonOverseers of the Poor
C. Whitmarch ast.
H.M. Queen VictoriaH.M. Queen VictoriaOsborne House and land, Newbarn (140 acres), Osborne Coppice (90 acres), Barton Farm and Coppice (420 acres).
Auldje, MessrsMessrs AuldjeStore in East Cowes
Barrington, MissMiss BarringtonHouse (milliners) and Land (6 acres 2 roods)
Bouverie, RevdRevd BouverieHouse (Whippingham rectory) and 35 acres land
Bull, WilliamHenry DashwoodHouse in Shamblers
Dashwood, JamesJames HuntHouse in East Cowes
Dashwood, HenryHenry DashHouse in Whippingham

Overseers Accounts[edit | edit source]

These record payments made to and for the poor and always make fascinating reading; a selection of interesting items from West Stour, Dorset is found below. After that is one from Ashburton, Devon.

Overseers of the Poor Accounts West Stour, Dorset (from Bricknell)

1722Paid the dokter for bleding of Elizabeth HANN twise.5s
1773Gave Richard GERRARD to buy toe for his wound.1s.6d
1774Paid the Wendow money for Old Kileme11 ½d
1774Paid for 6 penneth of save for Ann DEMER6d
1775Paid for a Spening turn for Weddow Burdon3s.6d
1775Paid for hancheff for Elizabeth HANN-
1779To Robert GRAY for John PARSONS who died of the small Pox£1
1780Paide for widow BURDIN dater for the Evil2s.6d
1784The expences of Phillip RIDOUT funral And the arter daved4s
1787Paid for bottiming the parish chair1s
1803Paid Martha STREET for Nurse tending Ann CLOFF and Others in the Smallpox Month£1.8s
1804Su PARSONS to buy Oppoleldock2s.6d
1819Paid for a step ladder for Josh HANNS family in the Poor House10s.6d
1820Mr. HURDS Bill for nockleding of Poor for the cowpox£2.4s


(Video) Children's Rights Conversations: Child Poverty

  • Arter daved is phonetic spelling for affidavit (for burial in woollen)
  • Bleding (Bleeding) by using leeches was an old remedy.
  • Hancheff was a handkerchief.
  • Nockleding was an attempt to spell innoculating.
  • Oppoleldock was a herb remedy.
  • Save was ointment or salve.
  • Spening turn was probably a spinning wheel.
  • Stepladder—why this was needed is beyond me!
  • The (King’s) Evil was scrofula, and Widow Burden’s daughter needed to pay for a certificate to allow the King’s touch.
  • Toe was a kind of poultice.
  • Window Money was a tax based on the number of windows in your house.

Overseers Application Books Ashburton, Devon (from Church 2002)
Seems to be a combination of minutes and accounts.

1798Ordered that Roger Glanville be commanded to bring the Fire Ladders and Fire Crooks to the side of the shambles and hang them up there, as in former times, and not let them be taken off but in case of Fire or by Consent of the Overseers. [The parish had had a perpetual problem with borrowing of the Fire Ladders]
1799Sarah Clarke ticket for one child to be inoculated. John Trott 2 children inoculated.
1805Rd Halse’s wife applied to have one of the Orphans of T. Carlile Bound an Apprentice to her Husband, granted Richard aged 11.
1819Ordered Mr Chapple be paid for Instructing Rob Jewell in Musick. £5.5s
1809At this Meeting it was ordered that the Poor in the House, as an Encouragement for Working, be allowed one half of their earnings, Receiving only the Accustomed Daily Allowance of Food.
1809Ordered that a Tryal be made to get Sil. Mann’s Son into the Bristol Asylum for Indigent Blind
1817Resolved that the several shoemakers that have applied this day for relief for want of labour be employed to make the shoes for the Poor the ensuing Month.
1817A weekly allowance of one shilling be paid to Mr Bidlake for doing the office of Schoolmaster to the Children and reading daily prayers to the Poor

The alert family historian will quickly pick up the clues in such records such as payments for medicines, doctors, midwife, doctor and coffins; overseers expenses going to the town where the sessions were held to contest a removal order or ‘father a child’ (not what it appears to be in today’s terminology!); or visiting a former parishioner in another parish. It was not only the truly poor who availed themselves of relief, as even prosperous tradesmen may be seen in the records because of illness, accidents, alcoholism or sheer bad luck; both the responsible and the feckless could be struck. References to a pauper family may be found in their parish of residence but are more likely to be discovered in their parish of legal settlement.

Billing to Parish of Settlement[edit | edit source]

Overseers, and later guardians, were keen to recoup expenses for any non-settled inhabitant in their parish. Researchers should always consider where an ancestor is legally settled at each stage of his life so that parish chest records of appropriate parishes may be checked. For example, if he dies far away from a former residence is there a record of him being transported back there for burial, or was he buried where he died but at the expense of his parish of settlement?

Halifax Account for Leeds Expenses 1817 FS Library film 1551143
Expenses for individuals only included, not totals and receipts.

Name#wksFromToPer WeekTotal

John Batty26Mar 26Sep242/-21
Jas Crowther4DOApr 254/6
DO Coffin, Grave and Dues126
Mary Denton26Mar 26Sep242/6350
George Fenn18DOJul 304/-31
Thos Gledhill26DOSep 242/-21
Hannah Gledhill18DOJul 302/6250
DO Cloths out of Bond126
DO Gifts1
DO Do Marriage and Certificate to Tideswell of Evenden46
Wm Giles Widow26Mar 2624 Sept2/-21
Ellen Hoyle22Feb 26Jul 302/-240
Francis Barker12Mar 26Jun 184/521
Elizabeth Johnson8DOMay 216/-280
[DO] Coffin and Dues

John Wilkinson
22Mar 26Aug 275/-51
Saml Wilkinson26DOSep 243/-31
John Wilkinson
Willm Wood13DOJun 256/-31

Halifax Invoice to Leeds for Payment of Pauper’s expenses 1817 FS Library film 1551143
This covers the succeeding period to that in the previous chart.

(Video) Elizabeth Economy

West Riding of Yorkshire: THE Church-Wardens and Overseers of the Poor ofLeeds [owe]
To the Church-Wardens and Overseers of the Poor of Halifax Dr. For Money paid as per Order, to your Pauper.
Name# WksFromToPer WeekTotal

To Balance of Account2
John Batty16Sep 24 1817Jan 14 18182/-11
Mary Denton16DODO2/6200
Thos Gledhill16DODO2/-11
Coffin, Grave etc.
Wm Giles8DONov 19 18172/-
DO8Nov 19 1817Jan 24 18183/-140
DO Shoes
Ellen Hoyle20Jul 30 1817Dec 17 18172/-200
John Wilkinson
22Aug 27 1817Jan 28 18185/-51
John Wilkinson
16Sep 24 1817Jan 14 18183/-51
Saml Wilkinson6DONov 5 18173/-


Attention being paid to the Settlement of the above, will much oblige the Gentlemen of Halifax, for whom
I am,
Your obedient Servant
John Casson
Halifax Workhouse
April 10th 1818

Workhouse Out-Relief Accounts[edit | edit source]

Extracts from the Overseers Out-Relief Book for Halifax, Yorkshire are given below. Further down is one from the Parish Relief Book for Aldenham, Hertfordshire.

Out-Relief in Halifax 1823 (Extract from Accounts for Regular Poor) FS Library film 1551143


Farrar, Jno and WifeWaterside6/-6/-6/-6/-
Foster, Jas and WifeClayton

Frankleton, ThosBowling Dyke3/-3/-3/-3/-
Farrar, CharlotteRoyton8/-8/-8/-8/-
Foster, Jno WidowGildersome

Gaukroger, Widow and
Child 6 yrs 5 mths
Wike with Robt Pearson

Gath, Josa, Widow and
Cold Edge

Gaukroger, Betty ChildCrompton

Gaukroger, Wm WidowWoolshop3/-3/-3/-3/-
Gibson, Susan (blind)Cross Field5/-5/-5/-5/-
Green, GeorgeManchester

Gledhill Stepn WidowHonley

Gaukroger, Jas Widow and
2 Children
Bevey Land

Gaukroger, BettyCross Field26 wks19/6
Holroyd, Jno Widow

Aldenham, Herts Parish Relief Book 1829-35
Summaries from a wide book with many columns.
LH pages have columns for Cause of Relief, Age, Number of children under 10 years old, Places of residence, Whether field or woodland, Names and some descriptions.
RH pages have narrow columns for weekly payments, but years are not specified.

Old Age, 75 and 74, Hog’s Lane, wood, Kirby and wife, 5/- weekly from 30 Mar to 1 Feb.
Old Age, no age given, Alms Houses with her husband, field, A. Larkins, 2/- weekly from 30 Mar to 8 Feb.
Illness, 42 and 43, 4 children, Little Bushey, wood,Jno Lumm and family, 10/- weekly from 30 Mar to 1 Feb.
Old Age and Infirmity, Lechmere Heath, field,Mary Mansell widow, weekly from 30 Mar to 8 Feb.
Old Age and Infirmity, Caldicot Hill, wood, Widow Montague, 3/- weekly from 30 Mar to 6 Jul ‘since then in Workhouse’.
Nurse child, his wife dead, 3 children, Abbots Langley, field, Stephen Malbrow, 5/- weekly from 30 Mar to 18 May, then 4/- to 5 Oct, then 2/6 until 8 Feb.
Old Age, Alms Houses, field, S. Nicholls, 2/- weekly from 30 Mar to 8 Feb
Bastard, 10, Caldicot Hill, wood, Newton’s child (bastard), 2/- weekly from 30 Mar to 6 Jul, then 1/6 until 8 Feb.
Old Age and Infirmity, 74 and 62, no place noted, Newton and Wife, 4/- weekly from 12 Oct to 1 Feb.

Guardians Accounts and General Ledgers[edit | edit source]

These records of expenditures are often available and can be quite voluminous.

(Video) Making Money Off the Poor? Rural Sales and Consumer Products at the Bottom of the Pyramid


Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course English: Poor Law and Parish Chest Records offered by The International Institute of Genealogical Studies. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at wiki@genealogicalstudies.com

We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.


What was the role of the overseer of the poor? ›

They were introduced in 1691. The overseers were responsible for apprenticing poor children. This would ensure that they would learn a trade and be able to support themselves.

What is the role of the parish overseer? ›

These laws required that each parish elect two overseers. They were responsible for administering to the needs of the poor. This included managing a budget by collecting the poor tax from parish members, helping to distribute 'outdoor relief' (usually money or food), and supervising the local parish poorhouse.

What did the Board of Guardians do? ›

Elected boards of Guardians managed Poor Law Unions. The 130 Unions established in 1838 were divided into 2,049 electoral divisions (later increased to 3,438 electoral divisions when the number of Unions was increased to 163).

Who were the guardians of the poor? ›

The title “guardian of the poor” is given to those officers whose duties are very similar to those of overseers of the poor, that is, generally to relieve the distresses of such poor persons who are unable to take care of themselves.

What are 2 things an overseer of the poor had the power to do? ›

Collect the poor rate; Distribute poor relief; and. Supervise the poorhouse.

How were overseers treated? ›

Viewed with a condescending and often critical eye by their employers, forbidden to fraternize with the slaves, discouraged from entertaining company, and obliged by the nature of their duties to maintain a physical presence on the plantation, overseers had little opportunity to enjoy the fruits of their managerial ...

What does the Bible say about an overseer? ›

1 Timothy 3 1

Here is a trustworthy saying: If anyone sets his heart on being an overseer, he desires a noble task. not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money. He must manage his own family well and see that his children obey him with proper respect.

What is the difference between a parish administrator and pastor? ›

In general, an administrator has the same duties and scope of authority as a pastor; however, these may be limited by the bishop. The bishop in time may decide to appoint the administrator as the pastor. A pastor is "the proper shepherd" of a parish. (The word pastor in Latin means "shepherd.")

Who is an overseer? ›

: a person who oversees others : a person with supervisory responsibilities. Her insider status was cemented in 1988 with a stint as …

What powers do the Guardians have? ›

Guardian (Marvel Comics)
AbilitiesGenius-level intellect Proficient scientist and engineer Skilled hand-to-hand combatant, martial artist, strategist and inventor Physical attributes enhanced to peak of human potential Superhuman strength and durability Flight Personal force field Ability to fire energy blasts
12 more rows

What religion are the Guardians? ›

Tanzim Hurras al-Din (Arabic: تنظيم حراس الدين, transliteration: Tanẓīm Ḥurrās ad-Dīn, Guardians of Religion Organization or Guardians of Religion) commonly referred to as Hurras al-Din, is an armed insurgent group affiliated with Al-Qaeda and fighting in the Syrian Civil War.

What are the powers of the Guardians? ›

Protect, preserve, manage, and dispose of the estate according to law and for the best interest of the protected person. Use the protected person's estate for the proper care, maintenance, education, and support of the protected person and anyone to whom the protected person owes a legal duty of support.

What is a workhouse in England? ›

workhouse, institution to provide employment for paupers and sustenance for the infirm, found in England from the 17th through the 19th century and also in such countries as the Netherlands and in colonial America.

What is the meaning of guardians of the poor? ›

: a member of a board appointed or elected to care for the relief of the poor or administer the poor laws within a township, parish, or district in England.

Who were the 6 guardians? ›

The Guardians
  • the Bishops William Fraser of St Andrews and Robert Wishart of Glasgow.
  • the barons John Comyn of Badenoch and James Stewart.
  • the Earls Alexander Comyn of Buchan and Duncan of Fife.

What are the poor laws in England? ›

The poor laws gave the local government the power to raise taxes as needed and use the funds to build and maintain almshouses; to provide indoor relief (i.e., cash or sustenance) for the aged, handicapped and other worthy poor; and the tools and materials required to put the unemployed to work.

Who was the overseer in slavery? ›

On large plantations, the person who directed the daily work of the slaves was the overseer, usually a white man but occasionally an enslaved black man—a "driver"—promoted to the position by his master.

What were the three categories of the poor? ›

The poor were classified in 3 brackets: a) The able poor who would work b) The able poor who would not work c) The poor who could not work, including children. The 1563 provisions meant that those who could (and would) work received some assistance in their own home: outdoor relief.

How were female slaves punished? ›

Whipping, a common form of slave punishment, demanded the removal of clothing. For the female slave, this generally meant disrobing down to the waist. Although her state of half dress allowed the woman some modesty, it also exposed her naked breasts to all eyes.

Were overseers paid? ›

Overseers were mostly young men who were looking for experience to some day own their own land. Pay for the overseers ranged from 700 to 2,000 a year for cane and rice plantations, from 200 to 1,000 on cotton and tobacco plantations.

What's another word for overseer? ›

chief, head, boss, director.

Can a female be a pastor? ›

Scripture is clear. Only biblically qualified men can hold the position of pastor in Christ's church.

What does overseer mean in Christianity? ›

The word indicates one who has been given authority or responsibility to govern or oversee a group/estate/or situation. A careful study of the New Testament will reveal that this word is used interchangeably with another Greek word (πρεσβύτερος/presbyter). This word is often translated as elder.

Where in the Bible does it talk about pastors being held accountable? ›

Ezekiel 18:20 makes it plain that it is individuals who are judged for their own sins. But ministers are charged as watchmen, undershepherds of the Great Shepherd with the responsibility of warning sinners of the impending judgment of God.

How long can a pastor stay in a parish? ›

In 1984, the USCCB made a complementary decree that limited a pastor's initial assignment to six years. Individual ordinaries may appoint pastors to a six-year term of office. The possibility of renewing this term is left to the discretion of the diocesan bishop.

What is the hierarchy of office in church? ›

The hierarchy of the Catholic Church consists of its bishops, priests, and deacons. In the ecclesiological sense of the term, "hierarchy" strictly means the "holy ordering" of the Church, the Body of Christ, so to respect the diversity of gifts and ministries necessary for genuine unity.

What are the ranks of church office? ›

Hierarchy of the Catholic Church
  • Deacon. There are two types of Deacons within the Catholic Church, but we're going to focus on transitional deacons. ...
  • Priest. After graduating from being a Deacon, individuals become priests. ...
  • Bishop. Bishops are ministers who hold the full sacrament of holy orders. ...
  • Archbishop. ...
  • Cardinal. ...
  • Pope.

Are elders pastors and overseers the same? ›

The New Testament uses these words to describe the same office and responsibility in the local church. Elders are Pastors, Shepherds, and Overseers. Pastors are Elders, Overseers, Shepherds.

What is the Hebrew word for overseer? ›

overseer noun. (mash'giyach) מַשְׁגִּיחַ , (m'fakeach) מְפַקֵּחַ

What is the head pastor called? ›

In larger churches with many staff members, "Senior Pastor" commonly refers to the person who gives the sermons the majority of the time, with other persons having titles relating to their duties, for example "Worship Pastor" for the person leading singing.

Who is the strongest of the Guardians? ›

While Peter Quill isn't as powerful as he once was (since the death of his father), if all the powers he has ever had are taken into account, Star-Lord is by far the most powerful Guardian.

Who is the leader of the Guardians? ›

Peter Quill

Why were Guardians chosen? ›

A Guardian is chosen based on two criteria, they can wield the Light and they performed certain deeds in their former life that make them suited to be Guardians.

What nationality are the Guardians? ›

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

What is the no God religion called? ›

Generally atheism is a denial of God or of the gods, and if religion is defined in terms of belief in spiritual beings, then atheism is the rejection of all religious belief.

Are the guardians the same as the Indians? ›

So how did we get here? This is a timeline of important dates as the team changed its name from the Cleveland Indians to the Cleveland Guardians...

Why are the Guardians of the Universe evil? ›

Prior to the New 52 relaunch, despite their faults, the guardians were usually there to deal with the situation. Following the relaunch, they have begun to head towards a more villainous role due to their unemotional nature to which they ultimately descend into madness.

Where do guardians get their power? ›

Guardians wage a vicious armed conflict against a myriad of extraterrestrial species who pose an immediate threat to the survival of humanity. The greatest source of the Guardian's power lies in their ability to harness the energy of The Traveler and use it as a weapon against their opponents.

How strong is the god of guardians? ›

He has been described as extremely powerful and, apart from Urek Mazino and most likely Zahard and the Great Warriors, no D-rank Regulars have ever been able to defeat him. Baam mentioned that he felt a tremendous power similar to Urek coming from the guardian, although Urek felt much greater.

What happened to babies born in workhouses? ›

Children in the workhouse who survived the first years of infancy may have been sent out to schools run by the Poor Law Union, and apprenticeships were often arranged for teenage boys so they could learn a trade and become less of a burden to the rate payers.

Were there workhouses in America? ›

In 1660, Boston built its first workhouse—a brick building intended for “dissolute and vagrant persons.” Massachusetts' poor people had more than the workhouse to fear: Towns could also banish poor people or even auction them off to the lowest bidder.

Are any workhouses still standing? ›

Old workhouse buildings still stand all across the country. Apart from residential and hospital occupation, they have been adapted for uses including schools, offices, factories, warehouses, youth hostels and museums.

What are the 4 pillars of guardians? ›

Current Guardians
CharonHaumea, the Second PillarWhite-Clad
ArrowShō Kusakabe, the Third PillarWhite-Clad
Joker (Self-proclaimed)Shinra Kusakabe, the Fourth PillarHoly Sol's Shadow
Arthur BoyleSpecial Fire Force Company 8
2 more rows

What is the overseer of the poor mean? ›

: a person who is appointed or elected to take care of or to assist the poor with money, supplies, or services furnished by public authority and whose duties are prescribed by local statutes.

Why do they call themselves the Guardians? ›

The Guardians are named after the Art Deco statues on the Hope Memorial Bridge near Progressive Field in Cleveland. The statues are known as the "Guardians of traffic."

Who is the first Guardians? ›

The Guardians first appear in Marvel Super-Heroes #18 (January 1969). The initial roster consisted of Vance Astro, Martinex T'Naga, Captain Charlie-27, and Yondu Udonta.

Who were the guardians before? ›

On July 23, 2021, it was announced that the Indians would change their name to the Guardians. It went into effect at the start of the 2022 season. The Guardians clinched the AL Central in 2022, but lost the ALDS again to the Yankees.

Who are orphans Guardians? ›

A “guardian” is a person appointed by the court or by the consent the child's parents, to act for a minor who is not capable of managing his or her own affairs. A guardian, like a parent, is required to promote and act in the best interests of the child.

What was an overseer in slavery? ›

On large plantations, the person who directed the daily work of the slaves was the overseer, usually a white man but occasionally an enslaved black man—a "driver"—promoted to the position by his master.

What was an overseer in the 1800s? ›

Overseers were the middlemen of the antebellum South's plantation hierarchy. As such they occupied an impossible position. The masters expected them to produce profitable crops while maintaining a contented workforce of slaves—slaves who had little reason to work hard to improve the efficiency of the plantation.

Who were the overseers in Frederick Douglass? ›

His owner and overseer, Aaron Anthony, fed enslaved children from troughs and mercilessly whipped slaves who did not obey his orders quickly enough. When Frederick was about 10, he was given to Anthony's daughter, Lucretia Auld.

Who was the overseer of overseers Frederick Douglass? ›

Captain Anthony

Anthony is the clerk for Colonel Lloyd, managing Lloyd's surrounding plantations and the overseers of those plantations. Anthony is a cruel man who takes pleasure in whipping his slaves, especially Douglass's Aunt Hester.

What food did slaves eat? ›

Weekly food rations -- usually corn meal, lard, some meat, molasses, peas, greens, and flour -- were distributed every Saturday. Vegetable patches or gardens, if permitted by the owner, supplied fresh produce to add to the rations. Morning meals were prepared and consumed at daybreak in the slaves' cabins.

Who was the man who killed slavery? ›

John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights.

What does the Bible say about overseers? ›

1 Timothy 3 1

Here is a trustworthy saying: If anyone sets his heart on being an overseer, he desires a noble task. not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money. He must manage his own family well and see that his children obey him with proper respect.

What job did most slaves have? ›

Over 61% of the field slaves were women who hoed and ploughed, harvested, and built fences around the Estate. Slaves who were physically disabled in some way were often given less physically demanding jobs such as making clothing or shoes, or picking the seeds of wild onions out of the oat seeds.

Who was of all the overseers the most dreaded by the slaves? ›

What characteristics make Mr. Gore, "of all the overseers, the most dreaded by the slaves"? How does Mr.

How are overseers chosen? ›

Overseers were chosen in a variety of ways, with initial leaders chosen before the war, and subsequent overseers afterward. In Vault 11, elections were held each year to choose a new overseer, who in turn would be killed as that year's "sacrifice."

Who was Douglass favorite master? ›

Douglass' tenure with Covey ended after a year, and he was hired out to William Freeland in January 1834. Douglass calls Freeland "the best master I ever had, till I became my own master." Freeland never hit Douglass, but, more important, he didn't profess religiosity.

Who was Douglass's master? ›

His master, Aaron Anthony, dies late in the year; Frederick becomes the property of Thomas Auld, Anthony's son-in-law.

What is Frederick Douglass most famous quote? ›

#1 “If there is no struggle, there is no progress."

Who helped Frederick Douglass? ›

This time, Frederick met a young free black woman named Anna Murray, who agreed to help him escape. On September 3, 1838, he disguised himself as a sailor and boarded a northbound train, using money from Anna to pay for his ticket. In less than 24 hours, Frederick arrived in New York City and declared himself free.

What is the name of the overseer who worked for Captain Anthony in Frederick? ›

Frederick Douglass had two masters – Captain Anthony and his overseer Mr Plummer whom he describes as a miserable drunkard, a profane swearer and a savage monster.

What was the name of the overseer at the plantation Douglass grew up on why was his name apropos? ›

What was the name of the overseer at the plantation Douglass grew up on? Why was his name apropos? Mr. Severe.


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